The titles below provide links to graphic and tabular analyses of the outcomes of the validational P-O-S-E(c) research study carried out in 2006-7. The target population was 275 third grade students distributed in ten classes from three schools in the Plainview-Old Bethpage (POB) school district, Nassau County, Long Island, New York.
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P-O-S-E(c) Validation Study:
Plainview-Old Bethpage (POB)
Plainview-Old Bethpage Central School District The New York State District Report Card Accountability and Overview Report 2006–07. A detailed report of demographics and educational outcomes for the POB school district through academic year 2006-2007.
General characteristics of the target Grade 3 population, Plainview-Old Bethpage Central School District. 2006-7, N=275
NY State English Language Arts (ELA) proficiency scores (N=275) and Benchmark scores (N=78) for the 2006-7 Grade 3 population, Plainview-Old Bethpage Central School District. academic year 2006-7.
Descriptive statistics and histograms for P-O-S-E(c) test scores reported at percent correct and percent error (present P-O-S-E(c) format) scores (N=275) for the Grade 3 population, Plainview-Old Bethpage Central School District, academic year 2006-7.
Comprehensive tabular distributions of P-O-S-E(c) vowel substitution responses for 33,000 individual test item morphemes. Data tables are organized with short vowel items (CVC, CCVCC) on the left and silent /e/ long vowel items (CVC/e/) on the right. Using designators S for Spelling items, R for Reading items, n for non-word items and r for real word items, the successive series of tabular outcome distributions is as follows: a) SRnr; b. Snr; c. Rnr; d. nSR; e. rSR; f. SR (Cross check); g. nr (Cross-check); h. Sn; i. Sr; j. Rn; k. Rr; l. SRnr (cross - check).
Item analysis 120 P-O-S-E(c) test items listing mean percent error and standard deviation for each.
a) Item analysis error count for each of 120 P-O-S-E(c) test items. Maximum and minimum error items are highlighted for each sub-test.
b) Summary table of errors on each of the short vowels and silent /e/ long vowels.
c) Summary table of percent correct and percent errors on the four sub-tests (Sn), (Sr),(Rn),(Rr).
P-O-S-E(c) Internal Reliability: PASW (SPSS) Correlations: Cronbach alpha; Spearman-Brown; Guttman 120 P-O-S-E(c) test items administered to 275 third grade students in three schools of the Plainview-Old Bethpage school district (2006-7). Cronbach Alpha=.958.
P-O-S-E(c) REAL WORD FREQUENCY STATISTICS: Resource: Corpus of Contemporary English (COCA) 1990 - 2011
2005-2009 spoken, fiction, magazine, newspaper, academic sources; Frequency / million based on 425.000 million words.
P-O-S-E(c) real word frequencies of occurrence range between 0.25 and 25.0 per million. Median=3.5 per million.
P-O-S-E(c) REAL WORD AND NON-WORD PHONOTACTIC PROBABILITY STATISTICS: Calculated monophonic and biphonic stereotactic probabilities for P-O-S-E(c) Real word and Non-word test items. Two sample t-tests with equal variance assumption achieve no statistically significant difference at the .05 (two-tailed) level of confidence.
Regression of short vowel P-O-S-E(c) percent correct scores on silent /e/ (long vowel) scores. N=275 Grade 3 POB student data pairs.
Tabulation of short and silent /e/ vowel P-O-S-E(c) Spelling digraph exceptions, based on responses from N=275 Grade 3 POB students.
3-D display of all short vowel substitution errors based on an analysis of 22,000 P-O-S-E(c) test items, 4400 items per short vowel.from 275 Grade 3 students in POB. X/Y Axes are coded in SAMPA phonetic symbols (Speech Assessment Methods Phonetic Alphabet, 1987-89).
3-D display of all short vowel substitution errors based on an analysis of 22,000 P-O-S-E(c) test items, 4400 items per short vowel.from 275 Grade 3 students in POB. Correct responses are suppressed to highlight patterns of substitution. X/Y Axes are coded in SAMPA phonetic symbols (Speech Assessment Methods Phonetic Alphabet, 1987-89).
3-D display of silent /e/ long vowel substitution errors based on an analysis of 7,480 P-O-S-E(c) test items, from 187 Grade 3 students in in two schools (P, S) in POB. X/Y Correct responses are suppressed to highlight patterns of substitution. Axes are coded in SAMPA phonetic symbols (Speech Assessment Methods Phonetic Alphabet, 1987-89).
Gender effect on P-O-S-E (c) scores. 2-tailed t-test N/S, p=0.34 N=275 Grade 3 POB students.
Chronological age effect: regression of 275 third grade POB student age in months on P-O-S-E(c) short vowel scores. N=275; r=.099; N/S p=.102
Academic age effect: regression of 275 third grade POB student age in academic months on P-O-S-E(c) short vowel scores. The three POB elementary schools were P-O-S_E(c)-tested in months 2, 5 and 7, respectively, of the third grade academic year. N=275; r=.193; r^2=.037 p=.001.
Otis I.Q. (OLSAT) scores for 270 Grade 3 POB students. Regression of Otis Verbal subtest on P-O-S-E(c) short vowel percent correct scores. r=.26, r^2=.07, p=.00001.
CSE-Designated Grade 3 POB Students, N=59 (21.45% of 275), P-O-S-E© Percent Correct Scores.
NYS Dept. of Educatiion Report Card POB School district 2006-7
ELA Grade 3 correlated with P-O-S-E(c) percent correct; r=.39, r^2=.15, p<.000001, N=253
ELA Grade 3 P-O-S-E(c) Project POB students in cohort from Grade 3 (2007) through Grade 7 (2011).
Regression of P-O-S-E(c) percent correct for Grade 3 cohort 2007/2011 ELA Scale Score differences corrected for mean 2207/2011 ELA Scale score differences. (q.v. "Matthew Effect" probe).
Regression of Benchmark Scores on P-O-S-E % Correct, N=78 Grade 3 POB students.r=.62, r^2=.38, p= 1.83E-09.
Regression of P-O-S-E % Correct Short Vowels v. % Correct Silent /e/ Rule Long Vowels. N=275 Grade 3 POB students.r=.68, r^2=.46, p=6.23536E-38.
P-O-S-E(c) aggregate arrays of short vowel subsitutions in spelling and reading in vowel quadrangle format: i,e,a,o,u.