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P-O-S-E (c) High Risk 2nd Grade Students Baseline vs. RTI

2013-14 (N=56)

Reading Spelling Short Vowela

The Phonological-Orthographic Substitution Evaluation (P-O-S-E(c)) has been developed as a criterion-referenced test of short vowel proficiency targeting Grade 3 students. Contemporary iterations of national (CCSI, 2011) and state (NY, 2005, 2011) Common Core Learning Standards posit acquisition of phonological and orthographic competence for short vowels and the silent /e/ rule in monosyllabic words by the beginning of grade 2.​


In 2013,an administrative decision was made by the Mineola Union Free School District to apply the P-O-S-E(c) to a select population of 2nd Grade students identified as High Risk for reading. In this district, two schools serve 2nd Grade, Hampton Street and Meadow.Drive. In each school, a selection committee was formed consisting of Reading, Special Education, ESL and SLP teachers  Each team reviewed the 2nd grade student population in their respective schools using Benchmark, NWEA and CSE designation information. A total of 60 students were selected between the two locations. There were more ESL students present in the Hampton Street School sample and a larger proportion of CSE students, with a co-taught class in the Meadow Drive School group. Consequently, data from the two school sample high risk populations were analyzed in parallel.


The spelling portion of the P-O-S-E was group-administered  in each school. One week later, the reading portion of the P-O-S-E(c) was administered individually. Test results were scored and reviewed by each selection committee to determine respective courses of remediation for the academic year 2013-14.


Intervention responsibilities for students, identified as having high or mid-intervention priority range substitution error scores on the P-O-S-E(c), were distributed among the multi-specialty educational disciplines represented on the selection committees.

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